This group and its relatives—Hybrid Bourbons, Hybrid Noisettes, etc.—were recognized by 19th-century authors like William Paul, who were attempting to categorize the vast array of new hybrids. The offspring of unions between once-flowering European roses and repeat-flowering Chinas, Teas, Bourbons and Portlands, they resemble the old roses but have smoother foliage and stems, a prolonged season of bloom, and occasional fall flowers. Hybrid Chinas embody attributes that make them particularly useful to today’s gardeners. In the warmest parts of California and the South, mild climates lacking winter chill, where many Old European roses bloom less copiously, these beauties perform superbly and bring the charm of old-world roses to the garden. Conversely, they may require more protection in colder areas. Because many of the Hybrid Chinas are tall, arching growers, they may often be put to use as climbers of extravagant abundance.